The Seven Exoduses of Kashmiri Pandits

Third Exodus

Hyder Shah (1470–1472 CE) restarted the fanatic ways of previous Islamic rulers. The noses and arms of Pandits were chopped off while many others preferred to drown themselves in Jhelum river to escape torture.

  1. They should not wear Jama (Mughal style clothing).
  2. Should not move out with their arms covered.
  3. They shall not visit any garden.
  4. Are not permitted to have a tilak mark on their foreheads.
  5. Their children should not be educated.
  1. When killing with sword got monotonous, the Hindus were put in pairs, tied in grass sacks and drowned in the Dal Lake. Later leather sacks were used instead of grass sacks.
  2. Muslims were free to jump on the back of Hindus to take rides. This practice was called Khos.
  3. Tilaks, turbans, and wearing of shoes were banned for Pandits.
  4. To save their daughters from the lust of Afghans, many had to shave their heads or cut off their noses.
  5. Many Pandits were appointed as Kardars or agricultural tax collectors. If the crops failed and ample tax was not brought — these Kardars were tortured in any way as the governor pleased.
  6. There was a concentration camp near Nishat garden where Hindus were tortured.

Kashmir was under Sikh rule between 1819 CE and 1846 CE. In 1846, J&K State was formed and came under the Dogra rule from 1846 to 1947. Under Sikh and Dogra rule, the Hindus in Kashmir got respite from Islamic oppression.

Seventh Exodus

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